American history books refuse to acknowlege that Ukraine was in WWII. Experiment for yourself. Pick up any WWII books in the library, go to the index and search for Ukraine or Ukrainian. Almost nothing!
The most comprehensive history of Ukraine in World War II can be found on these amazing pages: http://www.infoukes.com/history/ww2/ . All Ukrainians should read this. About the Author: Andrew Gregorovich is a third generation Canadian who heard the war on the radio. Educated at McMaster University and the University of Toronto, he has been a department head in the University of Toronto Library system for over 30 years. A past Chairman of the Toronto Historical Board, he is a member of the Centre for Russian and East European Studies and is on the Academic Board of the University of Toronto. He is Editor of FORUM Ukrainian Review.
The Ukrainian Problem website in German
Repatriation of the DPs to their homelands was falling apart. Particularly, the western military stood helpless before this problem, since they could not interpret this phenomenon with their own historical and political experiences. A group of DPs, which claimed themselves as Ukrainian, and not Soviet, Polish, Romanian nor Czech nationalities, or as the owners from Nansen passports the Vorkriegszeit, were officially stateless. The classification of nationality under the formal relationship between individual and government authority on the one hand and the nationality according to the self understanding of this person's group adjusting classification, on the other hand, threw the standardized system of the repatriating in doubts. The responsible persons of the US zone decided in 1945, Ukrainians were not to be recognized as an own nationality. At the same time, the British administration didn't recognize the Ukrainian nationality. At the end of of 1945, The UNRRA followed the American vote and pointed out that UNNRA was not authorized to make decisions, but only see to the welfare of the the Ukrainian DPs. The breakdown about nationalities, set by powers, adapted the problem to the categories of the administrative law, under which the DPs was posed, possessed for the concerning however no reassuring character, but schuerte their fear of an obligation forced workers repatriation after assignment of the Soviet nationality. The Ukrainian DPs expressed fear in returning to the homeland under the Russian rule, preferring to remain in the respective zones, in Germany. They felt that the Russians would regard it as collaborators and they would sent either to a prison nearby or to Siberia. The fact that this fear was not unauthorized turned out toward at the end of 1946 already, when of the fact was reported that Ukrainians of Polish origin were pushed away from Germany by authorities and forced into the Soviet Union.
On 3/30/12 "email@example.com" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
Yes Olga ....even now after my trip into Ukraine and Russia, these DP's are looked upon as traitors. They got out and had it better than ones who stayed basically.
Why did they stay in Germany: well, what I understand talking to these survivors, is that two reasons stick out: One they all wanted to go home or get out, far away.
Closest to home was Germany but was too close to the Soviets. Unfortunately, due to sickness (TB) most were not allowed to travel to another country to work. So most of the ones that had to stay, were in fact the poorest and the weakest. One can see this with their churches and belongings. In England & most countries farther away, property was bought. In Germany, only rented.
The ones who volunteered to stay close by, were waiting for a chance to go home. Like my father and a few I knew like him, they all had wives and family back in Ukraine. Their ambition was to get back, but without landing in a Gulag. They were waiting for the upcoming war with the Soviets, but it turned out a long cold war instead of a bloody one.
Brama website: Ukrainian disporal links Subtelny talks about DP camps
"On the last day of the war in Europe, some 20 million foreigners found themselves stranded in Germany and Austria (students, forced / slave laborers on farms or in factories, death camp inmates, etc.). More than 2 million (roughly 10%) of the foreigners were Ukrainians, and all but 200,000-220,000 of these returned either by force or willingly to what by then was the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The majority of those who remained were concentrated in Bavaria in southern Germany. " From an article by Orest Subtelny, Professor of History and Political Science, York University, Ukrainian Museum e-mail: info@UkrainianMuseum.org
Inquiries concerning the journal, Harvard Ukrainian Studies, please contact Tymish Holowinsky email@example.com.
Ukrainian photography site of Youry Bilak -- Panaramic views of St. Sophia Cathedral, St. Andrew's Church, Opera of Kiev, Opera of Lviv, Independence Square, Kiev, and more. Very beautiful.
Ukraine Report 2004 News three times a week. If you would like to be added
to the distribution list, please send us an e-mail: ArtUkraine.firstname.lastname@example.org
Ukrainian News E-POSHTA. three times a week to your e-mail; join the list:
Ukraine GenWeb - Bibliography for Ukrainian and Eastern European Genealogy
Ukrainian Museum Archive in Cleveland
1202 Kenilworth Avenue Cleveland, OH 44113, Tel: 216.781.4329
The exhibit commemorates the 60th anniversary of The Displaced Persons Commission Act signed by President Harry S. Truman on June 25, 1948. More than 100,000 Ukrainians benefited from this act of the 80th Congress of the United States when they immigrated to the United States. During four years of its existence, the Commission created by this act was able to process, transport, and provide visas for 370,000 persons, allowing them to enter the United States.
During World War II people arrived in Germany as a result of turmoil, persecution, and political upheaval. Nazi soldiers came to cities and villages and transported people to Germany forcing them into slave labor to replace their depleted workforce, while others were imprisoned in concentration camps. Many people wished to escape the Soviet regime and made their way to Austria and Germany as refugees.
Migdal Jewish Museum in Odessa -The website has an extensive description of the contents of the museum in addition to other information.
I just heard a segment about Orwell and his preface to a Ukrainian edition of his book "Animal Farm", which I gather many Ukrainians related to.
Thought you might be interested if you are not already familiar with it.
Silvia S email@example.com
Moota POW camp in UK
Island Farm Priosoner of War Camp: 198 /Special Camp: XI
Bridgend, South Wales.
Fun old photo archives: http://www.stevebulman.f9.co.uk/cumbria/archive_index.html
German WWI 1914-1918 POWs were held at Delamere Grange and were used to fell timber for and to transport timber to Saw Mills near Cuddington Railway Station
Records of the Army Staff (RG 319)
BOX 15 Declassified File NND 871040 No. File XE020846 Name Displaced Persons Statistics Vols. I-II
BOX 17 File No. 66333886 File Name List of Organizations Inimical to the United States:DP Act 48
BOX 23 Declassified NND 881043 File No. XE182853 File Name Azonder, Anti Communist Liberation Movement of the Peoples of Russia 10 July 1948 thru 10 Aug 1953 Vol. II
Box 34 Declassifie NND 853121 no file number File Name: Displaced Person Camps December 1945 - January 1949NND 853121 no number Displaced Person Camps December 1945 - January 1949
Records of the Displaced Persons Commission [DPC]
(Record Group 278) 1948-52
Displaced persons act of 1948 - this act brought Ukrainian immigrants into the USA (Olga Kaczmar included).
Unfortunately, this site doesn't recognize Ukrainains as victims.
second generation survivors: http://www.ushmm.org/remembrance/registry/forms/gen_update.pdf
Americans for Legal Immigration Alipac
USAFE United States Air Force Humanitarian Operations 1945-1997
Please visit US Constabulary and U.S.Army in Germany
Memories of the U.S. Army
"Military government duties were new, complex, and confusing, but somehow order was restored from that first existing chaos. The batteries settled down to extended guard duties, a daily struggle with DPs, the non-fraternization problem, the burgo-meister and the German language.
Headquarters Battery was assigned the city of Schneidlingen and Bornecke; Battery "A" Tartun, Unseburg, Nunsleben; Battery "B" Hakeborn', Battery "C", Schadeleben and -Nachterstedt; Service Battery, Cochstedt.
Extensive preparations were made for the care, feeding, sheltering and shipping of Displaced Persons. The problems, numerous and varied at first, were handled with the Finesse of a Charge 7 in repelling a counter-attack, then gradually modified as the artillerymen developed tact and a highly improved social technique.
Nazi slogans disappeared from the walls, rubble was cleared up and stones piled neatly along the walls. A few SS were flushed from hiding, arms caches uncovered in out of the way places and two crew members from a crashed German plane were put under arrest. Hostility softened in civilian faces - German kids clustered around ..."More of the 324 Field Artillery
"As the days passed the squadron ammunition dumps became larger and the maps more heavily marked with chinagraph. Patrols roamed the area in an attempt to control Displaced Persons (formerly German slave labour of many nationalities). These had become the vagabonds of Germany, eating, sleeping, and taking revenge as they wished. In an attempt to control this gypsy life the Ems River was made a stop line where all D.P's attempting to cross were diverted to proper reception camps and preparations were made to seal off Germany by closing the Dutch/German frontier."..."more FDR Library & Museum photos of WW II soldiers and victims
Witnesses and their histories
Timewitnesses.org War stories from witnesses
"After the rapid retreat of the Germans the countryside was filled with hundreds of POWs from every Allied nationality including Americans. Added to these were DPs from every country overrun by the German Army - Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, French, Italians, etc. had been brought to Germany as slave labor and forced to live in DP compounds under miserable conditions. These people had existed by looting after breaking out of the camp, abandoned by the retreating Germans. This situation continued throughout Germany until the end of the war and for weeks thereafter. Later on, one of our troops 'adopted' an Italian cook and soon after war's end Group Hq 'inherited' two comely Ukrainian sisters as maids with a strict understanding among us that there would be no 'hanky-panky.'"101st Cavalry in WWII
World War II - Miscellaneous
War Letters of the Second World War
Research Projects of the Second World War
Tribute to the veterans of World War II: Before you go - http://www.managedmusic.com/beforeyougo.html
Vintage photos after WWII: http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/10/world-war-ii-after-the-war/100180/
Yugoslavian Refugee camps
NARA Declassified records
BOX 26 Declassified NND 853125 File No. ZA021041 File Name Yugoslavia Miscellaneous, Vols. 1-3
Box 31 Declassified NND 856016 File No. 02/004145 File Name Yugoslav Crisis January-July 1948 Vol. 1
Declassified NND 921178 File # ZF010403 File Name: Yugoslavia Activities in Austria
YUGOSLAVIAN CHILDREN EXHIBIT / United Nations
Lots of Yugoslavia links: http://www.theatrelibrary.org/sibmas/idpac/institutions/st.html
Photo at right: Emaciated children at an unidentified concentration camp in Croatia Yugoslavia.[Photograph #46586] Circa 1942 - 1945 Photographer: Unknown Copyright: Agency Agreement (No Fees)
For your dedication to this project, you have alerted many people as too how much has happened that people don't even know about. I wasn't aware of so many dp camps. What a monster Hitler became and was able to pull off so much tragedy. And he almost succeeded in wiping many nationalities off the face of this earth. With all the work you have done, more people are coming forth with their stories. More will surface as more people become involved in their family background and are not afraid to speak up. Thank you dear sister.